Simla Agreement 1972

The agreement is the result of the two countries` determination to “end the conflict and confrontation that have so far weighed on their relations.” He designed the steps to be taken to further normalize mutual relations and also defined the principles that should govern their future relations. [4] [3] Pakistan ratified the Simla Convention on 15 July 1972 and India on 3 August of that year, bringing it into force on 4 August 1972. The Simla Agreement ensured the withdrawal of troops from territories occupied by both sides during the war, with the exception of Kashmir. Over the next two years, all prisoners of war had returned home. This agreement is ratified by both countries in accordance with their respective constitutional procedures and enters into force from the date of exchange of ratification instruments. [4] Six months after the liberation of Bangladesh, then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and former Pakistani President Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto met on 2 July 1972 in Shimla to sign an agreement that provides a framework for a mutual settlement of their differences. In 2001, then-Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf visited India on 14 and 16 July for a historic two-day summit in Agra at the invitation of Prime Minister Vajpayeee. However, the talks failed and no text of agreement could be found. As part of the agreement, the two nations, India and Pakistan, had agreed to refrain from threats and violence in violation of the line of control in Jammu and Kashmir. The agreement was agreed upon and signed after the 1971 Indo-Pak War, after which East Pakistan was liberated, leading to the formation of Bangladesh. The agreement emphasizes respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of the other. It also mentions non-interference in the internal affairs of the other and hostile propaganda.

The agreement did not prevent relations between the two countries from deteriorating until the armed conflict, the last time during the 1999 Kargil war. In Operation Meghdoot of 1984, India seized the entire inhospitable region of the Siachens Glacier, where the border was clearly not defined in the agreement (perhaps because the area was considered too arid to be controversial); This was considered by Pakistan to be a violation of the Simla agreement. Most of the subsequent deaths in the Siachen conflict were caused by natural disasters. B, like the avalanches of 2010, 2012 and 2016. Given the situation that required an agreement between the Indian and Pakistani leaders, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the Pakistani president was invited to a summit in Simla during the last week of June 1972. The summit was to lead to a peace treaty that was to lead to the withdrawal of troops and the return of prisoners of war after the 1971 war. According to historian Ramachandra Guha, India wanted a “comprehensive treaty to solve all outstanding problems,” while Pakistan preferred a “piecemeal approach.” Although India wanted a treaty, it reached an agreement because of the bitter negotiations of the Pakistanis.